Understanding India's Joint Parliamentary Committee: Significance and Criticisms

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The Joint Parliamentary Committee (JPC) is a standing committee of the Indian Parliament that is appointed to investigate specific issues of national importance. JPCs have been a part of the parliamentary system in India since 1987, and they have played a critical role in investigating high-profile cases of corruption, fraud, and other malpractices. In this article, we will examine the history, composition, functions, significance, and criticisms of the JPC in India.


The first JPC in India was constituted in April 1987 to investigate the Bofors scandal, which involved allegations of corruption in a defence deal between India and Sweden. Since then, several JPCs have been formed to investigate various issues such as the securities scam, the 2G spectrum scam, and the PNB scam. The JPCs have played a crucial role in uncovering corrupt practices and ensuring accountability in government operations.


A JPC consists of members of both houses of parliament and is headed by a chairperson who is appointed by the speaker of the Lok Sabha. The committee's composition is decided by the speaker in consultation with the leaders of the various political parties in parliament. Typically, the JPC consists of around 30 members, with the majority of members coming from the Lok Sabha.

The JPC's members are chosen based on their expertise in the issue being investigated, their seniority in parliament, and their party affiliations. The members are expected to work independently of their political affiliations and are bound by parliamentary privilege to maintain confidentiality and not disclose any information outside the committee's proceedings.


The JPC's primary function is to investigate specific issues referred to it by the parliament. The JPC has the power to summon witnesses, ask for evidence, and conduct hearings. The committee's report is presented to parliament, and its findings and recommendations are debated by the members of parliament. The JPC can also recommend changes in the law or policies to address the issues it has investigated.

The JPC's investigations are conducted in a transparent and objective manner, and the committee's members are expected to be impartial and non-partisan in their approach. The JPC's proceedings are open to the public, and the committee is required to submit periodic reports to parliament on its progress.


The JPC is an essential mechanism for ensuring accountability and transparency in government operations. It serves as a check on the executive branch's power by providing oversight and investigating issues of national importance. The JPC's findings and recommendations are taken seriously by parliament and the government and can result in significant changes in government policies and operations.

The JPC's investigations have resulted in several important reforms, including changes in the law and policies related to the functioning of the securities market, telecommunications, and banking sectors. The JPC's investigations have also led to the recovery of billions of rupees in lost revenue and the prosecution of those responsible for corrupt practices.


Despite the JPC's importance, there have been criticisms of its functioning. Some critics have argued that JPCs are often used as a political tool to deflect attention from the government's failures or to target political opponents. Others have criticized the JPCs for being slow and ineffective, with some investigations taking years to complete.

There have also been criticisms of the JPC's lack of teeth, with the committee's recommendations often being ignored by the government. Some critics have argued that the JPC should have more powers, including the power to initiate its investigations and to enforce its recommendations.


The Joint Parliamentary Committee is an essential mechanism for ensuring accountability and transparency in government operations. While it has faced criticism, its importance cannot be overstated. The JPC's findings and recommendations are taken seriously by parliament.
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